Operator in python
Operators are the constructs which can manipulate the value of operands.
Consider the expression 4 + 5 = 9. Here, 4 and 5 are called operands and + is called operator.
Types of Operator
Python language supports the following types of operators.
 Arithmetic Operators
 Comparison (Relational) Operators
 Assignment Operators
 Logical Operators
 Bitwise Operators
 Membership Operators
 Identity Operators
Let us have a look on all operators one by one.
Python Arithmetic Operators
Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20, then
Operator  Description  Example 
+ Addition  Adds values on either side of the operator.  a + b = 30 
– Subtraction  Subtracts right hand operand from left hand operand.  a – b = 10 
* Multiplication  Multiplies values on either side of the operator  a * b = 200 
/ Division  Divides left hand operand by right hand operand  b / a = 2 
% Modulus  Divides left hand operand by right hand operand and returns remainder  b % a = 0 
** Exponent  Performs exponential (power) calculation on operators  a**b =10 to the power 20 
//  Floor Division – The division of operands where the result is the quotient in which the digits after the decimal point are removed. But if one of the operands is negative, the result is floored, i.e., rounded away from zero (towards negative infinity) −  9//2 = 4 and 9.0//2.0 = 4.0, 11//3 = 4, 11.0//3 = 4.0 
Python Comparison Operators
These operators compare the values on either sides of them and decide the relation among them. They are also called Relational operators.
Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20, then −
Operator  Description  Example 
==  If the values of two operands are equal, then the condition becomes true.  (a == b) is not true. 
!=  If values of two operands are not equal, then condition becomes true.  (a != b) is true. 
<>  If values of two operands are not equal, then condition becomes true.  (a <> b) is true. This is similar to != operator. 
>  If the value of left operand is greater than the value of right operand, then condition becomes true.  (a > b) is not true. 
<  If the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand, then condition becomes true.  (a < b) is true. 
>=  If the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand, then condition becomes true.  (a >= b) is not true. 
<=  If the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand, then condition becomes true.  (a <= b) is true. 
Python Assignment Operators
Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20, then −
Operator  Description  Example 
=  Assigns values from right side operands to left side operand  c = a + b assigns value of a + b into c 
+= Add AND  It adds right operand to the left operand and assign the result to left operand  c += a is equivalent to c = c + a 
= Subtract AND  It subtracts right operand from the left operand and assign the result to left operand  c = a is equivalent to c = c – a 
*= Multiply AND  It multiplies right operand with the left operand and assign the result to left operand  c *= a is equivalent to c = c * a 
/= Divide AND  It divides left operand with the right operand and assign the result to left operand  c /= a is equivalent to c = c / a 
%= Modulus AND  It takes modulus using two operands and assign the result to left operand  c %= a is equivalent to c = c % a 
**= Exponent AND  Performs exponential (power) calculation on operators and assign value to the left operand  c **= a is equivalent to c = c ** a 
//= Floor Division  It performs floor division on operators and assign value to the left operand  c //= a is equivalent to c = c // a 
Python Bitwise Operators
Bitwise operator works on bits and performs bit by bit operation. Assume if a = 60; and b = 13; Now in the binary format their values will be 0011 1100 and 0000 1101 respectively. Following table lists out the bitwise operators supported by Python language with an example each in those, we use the above two variables (a and b) as operands −
a = 0011 1100
b = 0000 1101
—————–
a&b = 0000 1100
ab = 0011 1101
a^b = 0011 0001
~a = 1100 0011
There are following Bitwise operators supported by Python language.
Operator  Description  Example 
& Binary AND  Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands  (a & b) (means 0000 1100) 
 Binary OR  It copies a bit if it exists in either operand.  (a  b) = 61 (means 0011 1101) 
^ Binary XOR  It copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both.  (a ^ b) = 49 (means 0011 0001) 
~ Binary Ones Complement  It is unary and has the effect of ‘flipping’ bits.  (~a ) = 61 (means 1100 0011 in 2’s complement form due to a signed binary number. 
<< Binary Left Shift  The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand.  a << 2 = 240 (means 1111 0000) 
>> Binary Right Shift  The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand.  a >> 2 = 15 (means 0000 1111) 
Python Logical Operators
There are following logical operators supported by Python language. Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20 then
Operator  Description  Example 
and Logical AND  If both the operands are true then condition becomes true.  (a and b) is true. 
or Logical OR  If any of the two operands are nonzero then condition becomes true.  (a or b) is true. 
not Logical NOT  Used to reverse the logical state of its operand.  Not(a and b) is false. 
Python Membership Operators
Python’s membership operators test for membership in a sequence, such as strings, lists, or tuples. There are two membership operators as explained below −
Operator  Description  Example 
In  Evaluates to true if it finds a variable in the specified sequence and false otherwise.  x in y, here in results in a 1 if x is a member of sequence y. 
not in  Evaluates to true if it does not finds a variable in the specified sequence and false otherwise.  x not in y, here not in results in a 1 if x is not a member of sequence y.

Python Identity Operators
Identity operators compare the memory locations of two objects. There are two Identity operators explained below −
Operator  Description  Example 
Is  Evaluates to true if the variables on either side of the operator point to the same object and false otherwise.  x is y, here is results in 1 if id(x) equals id(y). 
is not  Evaluates to false if the variables on either side of the operator point to the same object and true otherwise.  x is not y, here is not results in 1 if id(x) is not equal to id(y). 
Python Operators Precedence
The following table lists all operators from highest precedence to lowest.
Sr.No.  Operator & Description 
1  **
Exponentiation (raise to the power) 
2  ~ + –
Complement, unary plus and minus (method names for the last two are [email protected] and [email protected]) 
3  * / % //
Multiply, divide, modulo and floor division 
4  + –
Addition and subtraction 
5  >> <<
Right and left bitwise shift 
6  &
Bitwise ‘AND’ 
7  ^ 
Bitwise exclusive `OR’ and regular `OR’ 
8  <= < > >=
Comparison operators 
9  <> == !=
Equality operators 
10  = %= /= //= = += *= **=
Assignment operators 
11  is is not
Identity operators 
12  in not in
Membership operators 
13  not or and
Logical operators 
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