Society Law and Ethics Notes Unit 3 Class 11


● Cyber safety: safely browsing the web, identity protection, confidentiality, cyber trolls and bullying. 

● Safely accessing web sites: malware, viruses, trojans, adware

● E-waste management: proper disposal of used electronic gadgets

● Indian Information Technology Act (IT Act)

● Technology & Society: Gender and disability issues while teaching and using computers


1. What is Cyber safety ?

It refers to the safe and responsible use of internet to ensure safety and security of personal information and not posing threat to anyone else’s information.

2. Identity Protection :

Protection against theft of personal information over Cyber Space without consent, usually for financial gain is known as Identity Protection.

3. What is Identity Theft ?

Identity Theft is a type of fraud that involves using someone else’s identity to steal money or gain other benefits. Online identity theft refers to an act of stealing someone’s personal information such as name, login details etc. and then posing as that person online.

Practices to ensure confidentiality of information:-

(1) use firewall wherever possible

(2) control browser settings to block tracking

(3) browse privately wherever possible

(4) be careful while posting on internet

(5) ensure safe sites while entering crucial information

(6) carefully handle emails

(7) do not give sensitive information on wireless networks

(8) avoid using public computers


4. What is Cyber-crime ?

Any criminal offense that is facilitated by, electronic communications or information systems, including any electronic device, computer, or the internet is referred to as cyber-crime.


5. What is Cyber Trolls ?

Derogatory messages or comments posted online targeting people are called cyber trolls.


6. What is Cyber Bullying ?

Harassing, demeaning, embarrassing, defaming or intimidating someone using modern technologies like internet, cell phones, instant messengers, social networks etc., called cyber bulling.


7. What is Cyber stalking ?

This is a form of online harassment where the victim is exposed to a large number of online messages and emails.

Usually, these following people know their victims and instead of turning to offline hunting, they use the internet to track them.

Commonly used Social Networking Sites:-

(i) Facebook

(ii) twitter

(iii) LinkedIn

(iv) Instagram


8. What is Digital Footprint?

A digital footprint is a trail of data you create while using the Internet. It includes the websites you visit, emails you send, and information you submit to online services. These are of two types:

i) An active digital footprint is where the user has deliberately shared information about themselves either by using social media sites or by using websites.

ii) A passive digital footprint is made when information is collected from the user without the person knowing this is happening.


9. What you should do while using social media ?

(1) Be authentic

(2)Use a disclaimer

(3) Don’t pick fight online

(4) Protect your identity

(5) Don’t use fake names

(6) Respect your audience

(7) Respect other’s sentiments


10. Tips for Safe Web Browsing:

● Common sense-(never respond to spam & disclose personal information).

● Use an antivirus & Firewall-It provide real-time malware protection.

● Create strong passwords

● Mind your downloads -Be sure to review all pre-checked boxes prompted at download & un-check any extra applications which we don’t want to install.

● Stay updated- Update operating system, Applications & Anti-virus


11. What is Adware?

Adware is software that generates revenue for its developer by automatically generating online advertisements in the user interface of the software or on a screen presented to the user during the installation process. The software may generate two types of revenue: one is for the display of the advertisement and another on a “pay-per-click” basis, if the user clicks on the advertisement.


12.What is Malware?

Malware, or malicious software, is any program or file that is harmful to a computer user. Malware includes computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses and spyware. These malicious programs can perform a variety of functions, including stealing, encrypting or deleting sensitive data, altering or hijacking core computing functions and monitoring users’ computer activity without their permission.

13.What is Virus?

A computer virus is a type of malicious code or program written to alter the way a computer operates and that is designed to spread from one computer to another. A virus operates by inserting or attaching itself to a legitimate program or document that supports macros in order to execute its code.


14.What is Trojans?

In computing, a Trojan horse is a program that appears harmless, but is, in fact, malicious. A Trojan can perform unexpected changes to computer settings and unusual activity, even when the computer is idle.


15.What is E-waste?

Whenever an electronic device covers up its working life, or becomes unusable due to technological advancements or becomes non-functional, it is not used anymore and comes under the category of e-waste or electronic waste.


16. What is E-Waste Management?

As the technology is changing day by day, more and more electronic devices are becoming non-functional and turning into e-waste. Managing such non-functional electronic devices is termed as e-waste management. It is reusing and recycling of e-waste which is no longer in use and can be salved for some of its components.

Ways to dispose off e-waste:

● Give Back to Your Electronic Companies and Drop Off Points

● Visit Civic Institutions

● Donating Your Outdated Technology

● Sell Off Your Outdated Technology

● Give Your Electronic Waste to a Certified E-Waste Recycler


17.Explain Information Technology Act, 2000.

Information Technology Act, 2000

The Information Technology Act, 2000 (also known as ITA-2000, or the IT Act) is an Act of the Indian Parliament notified on 17 October 2000. It is the primary law in India dealing with cybercrime and electronic commerce.

A major amendment was made in 2008 and now it is called the IT (Amendment) Act 2008.


18. Gender and disability issues while teaching/using computers:

Gender Issues

● Preconceived notions – Notions like “boys are better at technical and girls are good at humanities.

● Lack of interest

● Lack of motivation

● Lack of role models

● Lack of encouragement in class

● Not girl friendly work culture


These issues can be handled in following ways:

● There should be more initiative program for girls to take computer subject.

● Film and tv censor board should ensure fair representation of female role models in tv or cinema

● In practical room they should be more helped and assisted.


Disability Issues:

● Unavailability of teaching materials/aids

● Lack of special needs teachers

● Lack of supporting curriculum


Possible Solution for the same:

● Enough teaching aids must be prepared for specially abled students

● Must employ special needs teachers

● Curriculum should be designed with students with specially abled students in mind.


Also Check :

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Random Function in Python MCQ Class 11-12

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