# Chapter 4 Randomization Class 11 Questions and Answers Data Science

## Randomization Class 11 Questions and Answers

Objective Type Questions

1. Which of the following statement is false?

a) Yes/No is an example of close ended question in a survey.

b) A rating scale of 1 – 10 is an example of close ended question in a survey.

c) A multiple-choice option is an example of close ended question in a survey.

d) Suggesting improvement is an example of close ended question in a survey.

Answer: d) Suggesting improvement is an example of close-ended question in a survey.

2. Out of the options given below, which one can be selected to be associated with survey research?

a) The problem of objectivity

b) The problem of “going native”

c) The problem of omission

d) The problem of robustness

Answer: a) The problem of objectivity

3.Mr. X conducted a study of the way restaurant owners granted or refused access to a couple. This is an example of observing behavior in terms of:

a) Individuals

b) Incidents

c) Short time periods

d) Long time periods

4. The statement “results are accurate within +/-4 p.p., 95% of the time” refers respectively to:

a) confidence level and confidence interval

b) confidence interval and confidence level

c) margin of error and margin of confidence

d) sample interval and confidence level

Answer: a) confidence level and confidence interval

### Randomization Class 11 Questions and Answers

5. Sampling error can be reduced by:

a) correcting a faulty sample frame

b) increasing response rates

c) increasing the sample size

d) reducing incomplete surveys

Answer: c) increasing the sample size

6. Greater dissimilarity within population of interest will:

a) Increase the confidence interval

b) Decrease the confidence interval

c) Will have no impact on confidence interval

d) None of the above

Answer: a) Increase the confidence interval

7. Which of the following is a method of data collection by sensing?

a) Use of speed guns to measure the speed of vehicles by traffic police.

b) Performing surveys to calculate population of the country.

c) Performing experiments and observing the results.

d) None of the above

Answer: a) Use of speed guns to measure the speed of vehicles by traffic police.

8. What is the best format in which online data should be collected perform analysis?

a) RTF

b) DOCX

c) XML

d) CSV

### Standard Questions

1. What is a survey? What are the things to keep in mind while creating a survey?

A survey is a research method designed to gather data and gather insights from a group of people known as respondents about their opinions, preferences, or experiences. When conducting surveys it’s important to remember the following elements when creating them: clearly outlining objectives; using neutral language and keeping questions short and focused; avoiding leading questions; as well as making sure questions relevant for target audiences.

### Randomization Class 11 Questions and Answers

2. What are the different types of questions that a survey can contain? Provide two examples for each type of question.

Surveys can consist of several different kinds of questions:

i)  Multiple-choice: for instance, “Which color do you prefer: red or blue?” and “What age group are you in: 18-25, 26-35, 36-45 or 46+?”

ii) Open-ended questions : such as “What suggestions can be made for improving our service?” or “Describe your experience with our product in detail”.

iii) Likert scale questions: For instance, “Rate your satisfaction level with our customer service from 1 (Very Dissatisfied) to 5 (Very Satisfied).” Also consider: To what extent do you agree with this statement on a scale from 1-7: ‘This product is user-friendly.

iv) Ranking Questions: e.g., “Please rank these features from most important to least important: Price, Quality, Design, Customer Support.” “Rank these vacation destinations from most preferred to least preferred: Beach, Mountains City.”

### Randomization Class 11 Questions and Answers

3. What is sampling bias? Is it reasonable to have a sampling bias? Provide an example to support your answer.

Sampling bias occurs when the sample selected for a survey does not accurately represent its target population, leading to inaccurate or biased results. Although sampling bias should generally be avoided as it compromises the integrity of findings, in certain instances it might be acceptable.

For instance, a survey that seeks to understand the preferences of luxury car buyers may necessitate an emphasis on high-income individuals as its target market. However, if the objective of your survey is to gauge general public opinion, sampling bias that excludes certain demographics could produce misleading findings about broader population.

Therefore, it’s crucial that any findings come across as credible and applicable to intended populaton. It is vital that any attempt at bias reduction results in accurate findings which reflect reality for targeted populaces.

### Randomization Class 11 Questions and Answers

4. Given below are instances of biased survey questions. Point out the biasness involved and try rephrasing the questions so that the subject responding to them can generate meaningful response.

a) How amazing was your experience with our customer service team?

Bias: This question assumes the respondent had an excellent experience with our customer service team, leading to a positive bias in response rate.

Rephrased: To rate your experience with our customer service team from Excellent through Good Average or Poor? (Options are available.

b) What problems did you have with the launch of this new product?

Bias: The question presupposes there were problems with the launch of the new product, potentially creating a negative response bias.

Rephrased: Please share your feedback on the launch of the new product; were there any specific aspects you think could be improved upon?

### Randomization Class 11 Questions and Answers

c) How do we compare to our competitors?

Bias: This question assumes a comparison between our company and its competitors, potentially leading to a biased positive response.

Rephrased as follows: How do you perceive our company regarding our competitors (Options include Better, Similar and Worse).

d) Do you always use product X for your cleaning needs?

Bias: This question suggests that respondents use product X for their cleaning needs, leading to potentially biased answers.

For an alternate question: (Options include Product X, Product Y, Product Z or Any Others – please specify).

### Randomization Class 11 Questions and Answers

5. What is a confidence interval? What are the different factors affecting the values of a confidence interval for a given population?

A confidence interval is a statistical range that provides an estimated range of values within which population parameters, such as means or proportions, may lie. Its purpose is to quantify uncertainty associated with sample estimates. A 95% confidence interval indicates that when sampled repeatedly from the same population and calculated each time as confidence intervals approximately 95% will contain its true population parameter.
Factors influencing a confidence interval include:

Sample Size: For more precise estimates, larger samples typically lead to narrower confidence intervals with tighter confidence bands, and increased data variability results in wider confidence intervals that increase uncertainty.
Confidence Levels: For higher confidence levels (e.g. 99%), wider intervals must be used to capture more values that may exist in reality.

### Randomization Class 11 Questions and Answers

6. Explain with an example how sensors are used widely in the field of healthcare to collect data and monitor patients’ health conditions.

Sensors are widely utilized in healthcare to collect various forms of data and monitor patients’ health conditions. Wearable fitness trackers equipped with sensors are an example, monitoring heart rate, steps taken, sleep patterns and blood oxygen levels in real time to provide real-time information to enable individuals and healthcare professionals alike to track health metrics and detect potential issues quickly and efficiently.

Hospitals use medical sensors to continuously monitor patients’ vital signs, such as their heart rate, blood pressure and oxygen levels. A patient in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) might have multiple sensors attached that transmit data directly into a monitoring system and alert healthcare providers immediately if any important parameters fall outside normal range; prompting early interventions.

Implantable sensors provide valuable long-term monitoring data for disease management, helping both patients and physicians make informed decisions regarding treatment and lifestyle adjustments.

Sensors in healthcare play an essential role in data collection and patient monitoring, providing better health outcomes, early identification of issues and more tailored medical care.

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